THE SKULL IN HISTORY
The symbol of the skull and cross shins, with all its popularity, is also one of the most ambiguous symbols if we talk about its history. The symbol is commonly associated with the Jolly Roger, a flag with a skull and two crossed bones that pirates would use to identify their ships.
The origin of the symbol, however, is an unsolved mystery that sets historians back two thousand years.
The symbolism of the skull and crossbones has its traces in antiquity. It was first seen on the tomb of Tutankhamen in ancient Egypt, with a diagonal cross arrangement.
A staff or scepter was the symbol of universal power. The flail of arms (on the left side of the image above) was used to beat animals and even people and to show authority, while a staff or staff (on the right side of the image) was used to pull stray animals by the neck without causing them harm.
MEDIEVAL HISTORY OF SKULL
the knights templars
It is widely accepted that the skull and crossbones were first used by the Knights Templar in the Middle Ages. The Knights Templar or Templar Knights, sometimes documented as the Order of the Temple, the Poor Companions of Christ and the Temple of Solomon was the largest charity for nearly two centuries, especially after it was officially approved by the Catholic Church in 1129. Its pacifist members became known for many good deeds, as well as for the supposed introduction of the skull symbol and the crossed shins.
According to Masonic legend, the skull and crossed bones are the bones of Jackes de Molay. In an effort to seize the wealth of the Knights Templar, the Church ordered the dissolution of the society. De Molay, the 23rd and last Grand Master of the Knights, was burned alive by the Church. When three of the Knights Templar came looking for his bones, they found only his skull and femurs. At that time, the Knights Templar had become very talented sailors, and the skull and femurs of the last Grand Master became their nautical symbol: the Jolly Roger.
The legend of the Skull of Sidon also contains some clues about the relationship between the Jolly Roger and the Knights Templar. The Lord of Sidon, himself a Templar, lost his love when she was young. On the night of her burial, the Templar sneaked back to her grave and dug up her body. At the same time, he heard a voice asking him to return after nine months to find a son. Nine months later, the Knight Templar cut up his grave to find a head resting on the femurs of the skeleton. The same voice told him to keep the head, because it would bless all his efforts and defeat all enemies before him. The symbol of the son, or skull and crossbones, became the protective symbol for the Knights Templar.
What should be noted here is that the port of Sidon had always nested pirates. Therefore, the skull and crossbones could have been used as a symbol for the pirate flag before the time of the Knights Templar.
Adherents of Christianity maintained one of the earliest uses for the symbol. Toward the end of the Roman Empire and until the Middle Ages, Christians frequently used the skull and crossbones to symbolize death. The symbol was discovered in various Christian catacombs around Italy, some of which date back as far as the second century.
During the same early period, the skull and crossbones were also considered to represent "memento mori", a Latin term used in Rome that can mean, "remember that you are going to die".
Entrances to Spanish cemeteries were marked with a real skull and a set of femurs.s Throughout the Middle Ages, many people, Christians and non-Christians alike, began to have the symbol carved into their tombstones. Present in various manifestations throughout funerary traditions, the skull and crossbones is nevertheless a clear universal message: "every human being dies".
During the late Middle Ages (1400s), the use of the skull and crossbones began to decline until it was almost non-existent. The symbol was essentially unused during the following century, until it was adopted by some of the most feared people in the world: pirates. Originally, pirates simply used a red flag on top of the mast of their ships. Red symbolized bloodshed, and the fact that pirates would show no mercy. However, many pirates quickly changed their flags from red to black, and began weaving skull and crossbones. The Jolly Roger, as the flag came to be called, symbolized death with its color and symbol. Miranda Bruce-Mitford writes in her book, The Illustrated Book of Signs - Symbols, "The skull-and-crossbones emblem [was] adopted by pirates as a sinister warning of their evil intentions. "This flag filled sailors with fear and signaled death to all who saw it.
The importance of the symbol traveled with the importance of piracy, which ended in the mid-1700s. Here are some of the famous pirate flags used from 1693 to 1724 :
used by companies
The skull and crossbones did not reappear as a major recognized symbol again for nearly two centuries, until students at the prestigious Yale University formed a secret society called "Skull and Bones". This Society has been part of the university since 1832 and remains one of its most exclusive. This society embraced (and continues to use) the skull and crossbones as a symbol not to represent death, but to represent the mystery surrounding the society.
used by sports teams
The skull and crossbones were first adopted by a sports team in 1870. Already popular among many soccer teams and fans in Great Britain, the skull and crossbones were officially adopted by "The Rugby Unions" in 1870. In 1876 it was added for a brief period to the uniforms of the Cardiff Rugby Football Club. It was later removed due to pressure from the players' parents.
used in chemical industry
Shortly after the creation of the "Skull and Bones" company, the symbol also took on a different purpose. In 1829, New York State law was amended to require all containers of toxic substances to be labelled. The skull and crossbones first illustrated these labels in 1850.
The skull and crossbones are now used less and less to label toxic materials. Its negative and anti-environmental connotations discourage manufacturers from using the symbol, although it still appears in warnings for children, because of its playful associations with pirates.
Mr. Yuk, is a brand graphic that informs about the presence of a toxic substance. This new symbol is primarily intended for children as a less abrasive way to demonstrate the dangers of poison.
SKULL ARE NOW USED TO INDICATE POISON.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) uses the skull and crossbones in various "danger" signs to mark extremely toxic materials as hazardous to life. A study conducted at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada in 1986 determined the most effective skull and crossbones symbol in an effort to truly universalize a form of the graphic. A white skull and crossbones in a black triangle were found to be the most effective in communicating danger quickly and effectively. Although this graphic language is not universally used, the study helped to demonstrate the importance of widespread symbolic knowledge.
The skull and crossbones that adorn the pirate flag, more popularly known as the Jolly Roger, also saw its use in naval warfare. From time to time, the Jolly Roger has become a flag of victory, shown to celebrate the tenacity it takes to achieve victory, a common characteristic of victors and pirates alike.
SKULL ACROSS DIFFERENT CULTURES
In Indian culture, Lord Shiva and the goddess Kali wear a garland of skulls and bones. In Tibetan and Nepalese culture, deities like Kurukulla also wear necklaces with skulls.
The skull and bones are also an important neo-Nazi symbol. The Head of Death or Totenkopf was a symbol of the Nazi Schultzstaffel (SS). The purpose of the organization was to watch over the concentration camps. The current use of the Nazi skull and crossbones is posthumous: the skull and crossbones are tattooed on a body to indicate that the person was killed by one of the so-called "enemies" of the movement. In contrast, in pre-Columbian America, the skull and its accompanying symbols were honored and treated with importance among Aztec and Mexican tribes.
The symbol of the skull and crossbones has not always been effective. Before the war on terrorism, widely distributed bags of arsenic-infected corn seed were labeled with skull and cross-bone symbols. Many residents were unaware of the connotations of the symbol, resulting in a number of deaths.
The skull and crossbones have become an icon in the sign and tagging industry around the world. Although there is some evidence that the symbol and its connotations are not always effective, the skull and crossbones generally keep people away from dangerous substances and reduce the risk of poisoning or infection. With its rich and multi-faceted history, the skull and crossbones symbol has become a global safety icon. Its universalization has led to its widespread success, warning of the dangers of toxic materials throughout history and for generations to come.